Competition – Occurs when 2 or more species compete over resources. Dominated by the largest, most aggressive species. Examples: when hyenas compete for a carcass with vultures and marabou starks, and when two species of wolves compete over territory for food resources. One species benefits/is negatively affected and the other is negatively affected.
Herbivory – Occurs when a species exploits plant resources for food/consumption. Examples: Caterpillars consuming leaves, and rabbits consuming short grass. One species benefits and the other is negatively affected.
Predation – Occurs when one species kills and eats another. Examples: Lions killing and eating caribou, and wolves killing and eating elk. One species benefits and the other is negatively affected.
Symbiosis is a close association/physical proximital relationship between organisms.
- Mutualism – is an association between species where both species benefit. Examples: Termites and the cellulose digesting bacteria in their guts, and ruminants and their gut microflora of bacteria and cilliates. Both species benefit.
- Parasitism – Occurs when a parasite exploits the resources of its host. Examples: Tapeworms and humans, and cat fleas and its host. One species benefits and the other species is negatively affected.